F.A.Q Testing
  • Can you identify an unknown metal?
    Yes we routinely do chemical analysis of metals using OES/Chemical Analysis(Wet Method). We are able to provide a quantitative analysis of the important elements in a metal and match it to existing industry standards
  • How big must the sample be for Optical Emission Spectroscopy?
    Ideally the rectangular sample should be at least 25mm square and 1mm thick and round sample minimum dia 16mm x 25 mm length to prevent leaking of light and gas from the aperture during excitation and to prevent the sample from melting during excitation. Samples of other configurations may be used if they can be mechanically altered to conform to the size requirement.
  • How much weight do I need for Wet Analysis /ICP and Carbon/Sulfur analysis?
    The required weight will depend on the sample and material being tested. Generally, we would like to have at least 50 grams of material for analysis. Whenever possible, more is better, to have extra material for rechecks if a material is found to be out of specification, or for resampling if a problem is encountered during sample preparation.
  • Why did you identify the material to that specification?
    When the customer does not supply a specification, it is the analysts prerogative to assign one. There are thousands of specifications and usually more than one specification for each material type. The analyst will choose a corresponding specification for an unidentified material based upon the most generic criteria available [usually the Unified Numbering System for Metals (UNS)], such as one as close to the nominal requirements as possible or the more common material when the material meets several compositions.
  • Once you receive my order, what is the standard turnaround time?
    Turnaround is a priority and we make every effort to complete spectroscopy orders within 3 business days following the day the order is received and processed in our Order Entry Department. Orders for wet chemistry and ICP analysis have a 5-day turnaround.
  • How much will the analysis cost?
    The cost of the analysis will depend on the material, the available analytical methods, and the consideration of specific elements within the material that require special analytical techniques for accurate analysis. For a quote, please complete the Fast Quote form and contact our customer care cell.
  • What is Definition of Alloying Element and what is its purpose?
    Alloying element is one of which is added to a metal for effective changes in properties and which remains with in the metal. Purpose of Alloying:-
    Alloying elements are added in steel for the following purposes.
    • To improve the structure of steel.
    • To improve the mechanical properties of steel.
    • To improve strength and toughness at ordinary temperature.
    • To improve hardenability of steel.
    • To increase wear resistance.
    • To increase corrosion (rust) And oxidation resistance.
    • To increase magnetic properties.
    • To improve machineablility.
    • To improve case hardening properties.
  • What is the effect of different elements on the characteristic property of steels?
    1. Effect of Carbon:-
      • increase hardness, Brittleness, tensile strength, wear resistance, and machineabiltiy.
      • Where as it decrease ductility, malleability, weldability and melting point.
    2. Effect of Silicon:-
      • It is used as deoxidizer in steel making.
      • It improves oxidation resistance.
      • It improves electrical and magnetic properties.
      • It increases Hardenability.
      • It increases Ductility.
      • It increases strength in low alloy steel.
    3. Effect of Manganese:-
      • It contributes markedly to strength and hardness (but to a lesser degree than carbon).
      • Counteracts brittleness from sulphur.
      • Lowers both ductility and weldability if it is present in high percentage with high carbon content in steel.
      • It is also used as de oxidizer.
    4. Effect of sulphur:-
      • It is harmful impurity in steel.
      • increases hardness, brittleness, and machineability but decreases plasticity and toughness.
    5. Effect of Phosphorus:-
      • It is harmful impurity in steel.
      • It increases brittleness, fluidity of steel and decreases plasticity, ductility and toughness.
    6. Effect of Nickel:-
      • Ni is Austenite stabilizer .i.e. it lowers critical temperature and widen the range of heat treatment.
      • Randers high chromium steel austenitic.
      • It increases strength of unquenched steel.
      • Nickel increases ductility, toughness, corrosion resistance and hardenability.
    7. Effect of Chromium:-
      • It is ferrite stabilizer.
      • Chromium increases resistance to corrosion, resistance to oxidation, hardenability, abrasion and wear resistance and add some strength at high temperature.
    8. Effect of Vanadium:-
      • It promotes fine grains structure in steel.
      • It increases hardenability.
      • It increases strength, ductility, malleability and toughness to heat treated steel.
      • It cause secondary hardness during tempering (.i.e. resists tempering and causes hardness).
    9. Effect of Tungsten:-
      • It increases hardness and strength at elevated temperature (high temperature) red hardness.
      • It promotes fine grains structure and increases ductility and toughness.
      • It is highly heat resistant.
      • It forms hard and wear resistance particle of Tungsten carbide in tool steel.
    10. Effect of Molybdenum:-
      • It promotes hardenability of steel.
      • It makes steel fine and grained.
      • It makes steel usually tough at various hardness levels.
      • Counteracts tendency towards temper brittleness.
      • It raises tensile and creep strength at high temperatures.
      • It enhances corrosion resistance in stainless steel.
      • It forms abrasion resisting particles.
    11. Effect of Titanium:-
      • It Prevents localized depletion of chromium in stainless steels during long heating.
      • It reduces martensitic hardness and hardenability in medium chromium steels.
      • It prevents formation of austenite in high chromuim steels.
    12. Effect of Copper:-
      • Copper (0.2 to 0.5%) added to steel.
      • It acts as a strengthening agent.
      • It increases resistance to atmospheric corrosion.
    13. Effect of Boron:-
      • Increase hardenabiltiy or depth to which steel will be harden when quenched.
    14. Effect of Aluminium:-
      • It acts as a de oxidizer.
      • It produces fine austenitic grain size.
      • If present in an amount of 1%, it helps promoting nitriding .
  • Mechanical Testing
    • How large must my material sample be for tensile and bend testing?
      The required size will depend on the type of material, the type of test being performed and sometimes the specification. The guidelines on the Sizes Required for Testing as per IS:1608 apply to most orders.
    • What is the standard turnaround time for tensile bend and hardness testing?
      On the day your order is received, it is processed in our Order Entry Department and sent to testing. Our standard turnaround time to perform the testing and prepare your Certified Test Report is usually 3 additional business days. Same-day, next-day, and 2nd-day rush services are available for most orders at an additional charge.
    • Do you have the facility to find the young's modulus of metal samples by non destructive testing?
      We regret that we can find young's modulus by destructive testing method only.
  • Metallography
    • Can the excess material be returned to the customer?
      Yes, if requested by the customer. Mounted samples are typically retained by INDIANA for a period of 90 days and then discarded. Excess material in the Metallographic Laboratory is typically retained for a period of 10 days before discarding.
    • How soon can I expect results for routine metallurgical examinations?
      In general, standard turnaround is 3 working days from receipt of the order. Expedited service is available at an additional cost.
  • Non Destructive testing (NDT):
    • Which are the most commonly used NDT Methods?
      The method that can be used for non-destructive testing depends on the physical properties of the material. A thorough knowledge of each NDT method is required to ensure the correct selection of the appropriate method for each application. The most commonly used NDT methods are:
      • Visual Inspection
      • Liquid Penetrant Inspection
      • Acoustic Emission
      • Magnetic Particle Inspection
      • Eddy Current Inspection
      • Ultrasonic Inspection
      • Radiographic Inspection
    • Ultrasonic Inspection (UT):-
      • have material for ultrasonic inspection. Should I be aware of any restrictions?
        Tubing, pipe and bar stock must be free of surface coatings (oil, grease, heat-treat scale, urethane, etc.). The material must also be straight and without bends, kinks, or bowing.
      • Can you conduct ultrasonic wall thickness measurements of thick wall steel pipes between 20 and 90 mm.?
        We can certainly undertake Ultrasonic Thickness testing. Our costs are based on a per-spot or per-day basis depending on the project requirement and scope.
      • What information do I need to provide in order to receive a quote?
        Part drawing or size, quantity of parts to be inspected, location of area to be inspected (e.g. 100%, welds only, localized area) and the base specification.
    • Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI):-
      • Can you test through plating?
        In most cases yes, allowable thickness limits vary (check the specification).
      • Can parts be sandblasted prior to testing?
      • Does heat-treat scale or rust interfere with the inspection?
        Yes, the material should be sandblasted prior to testing.
      • Do you demagnetize after inspection?
        Yes, we demagnetize all material after inspection.
    • Failure Analysis
      • I have a part that failed. What do I do to have it analyzed, what will it cost and how long will it take?
        Questions concerning failure analysis techniques, pricing and turnaround times are handled on a case-by-case basis.